## I.6 SIMULATION AND MODELING (G.3)

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When designing or developing optimization algorithms, test functions are crucial to evaluate
performance. Often, test functions are not sufficiently difficult, diverse, flexible or relevant to real-world
applications. Previously,
test functions with real-world relevance were generated by training a machine learning model based on
real-world data. The model estimation is used as a test function.
We propose a more principled approach using simulation instead of estimation.
Thus, relevant and varied test functions
are created which represent the behavior of real-world fitness landscapes.
Importantly, estimation can lead to excessively smooth test functions
while simulation may avoid this pitfall. Moreover, the simulation
can be conditioned by the data, so that the simulation reproduces the training data
but features diverse behavior in unobserved regions of the search space.
The proposed test function generator is illustrated with an intuitive, one-dimensional
example. To demonstrate the utility of this approach it
is applied to a protein sequence optimization problem.
This application demonstrates the advantages as well as practical limits of simulation-based
test functions.

Cyclone separators are popular devices used to filter dust from the emitted flue gases. They are applied as pre-filters in many industrial processes including energy production and grain processing facilities.
Increasing computational power and the availability of 3D printers provide new tools for the combination of modeling and experimentation, which necessary for constructing efficient cyclones. Several simulation tools can be run in parallel, e.g., long running CFD simulations can be accompanied by experiments with 3D printers. Furthermore, results from analytical and data-driven models can be incorporated. There are fundamental differences between these modeling approaches: some models, e.g., analytical models, use domain knowledge, whereas data-driven models do not require any information about the underlying processes.
At the same time, data-driven models require input and output data, whereas analytical models do not. Combining results from models with different input-output structure is of great interest. This combination inspired the development of a new methodology. An optimization via multimodel simulation approach, which combines results from different models, is introduced.
Using cyclonic dust separators (cyclones) as a real-world simulation problem, the feasibility of this approach is demonstrated. Pros and cons of this approach are discussed and experiences from the experiments are presented.
Furthermore, technical problems, which are related to 3D-printing approaches, are discussed.